For several years, quantum computers have merely remained a conjecture. However today, quantum technology is witnessing a notable rise in attention and investment from intelligence agencies, governments, and companies. Now, researchers have led to a notable development in this field, which could well be the cornerstone towards the realization of quantum computers.
While conventional computers rely on how or what of the two binary digits 0 and 1 is represented by a conventional memory unit, which is also called bit, a bit in quantum computers is able to represent both 0 and 1 at the same time. This is owing to the fact that electrons are allows in multiple places during the same time according to quantum physics laws. Thus quantum bits exist in several overlapping states at one time.
This superpositioning of quantum bits allows quantum computers to undertake operations on several values at the same time whereas a conventional computer will undertake these operations serially. As a result, quantum computing promises a much better ability of solving some problems much faster.
The researchers have developed a quantum circuit capable of solving a specific difficult problem in algebra. The new quantum circuit possesses a simple structural design and it is capable of undertaking a fixed number of operations per qubit. In more scientific terms, the circuit has a constant depth. In the study, the researchers have demonstrated that the problem in question cannot be solved with the help of conventional constant-depth circuits.
Moreover, the researchers have also answered why the quantum algorithm can beat any equivalent classical circuit: The non-locality of quantum physics principles is exploited by the algorithm. The research has added a new milestone on the path of realization of quantum computers. Owing to the simple structure of the quantum circuit, it is a good candidate for a short-term investigational realization of quantum algorithms.